CompTIA Academic/E2C Security Certification Exam Voucher Only
Question No: 601 – (Topic 3)
A security administrator is aware that a portion of the company’s Internet-facing network tends to be non-secure due to poorly configured and patched systems. The business owner has accepted the risk of those systems being compromised, but the administrator wants to determine the degree to which those systems can be used to gain access to the company intranet. Which of the following should the administrator perform?
Patch management assessment
Business impact assessment
Answer: C Explanation:
Penetration testing is the most intrusive type of testing because you are actively trying to circumvent the system’s security controls to gain access to the system. It is also used to determine the degree to which the systems can be used to gain access to the company intranet (the degree of access to local network resources).
Penetration testing (also called pen testing) is the practice of testing a computer system, network or Web application to find vulnerabilities that an attacker could exploit.
Pen tests can be automated with software applications or they can be performed manually. Either way, the process includes gathering information about the target before the test (reconnaissance), identifying possible entry points, attempting to break in (either virtually or for real) and reporting back the findings.
The main objective of penetration testing is to determine security weaknesses. A pen test can also be used to test an organization#39;s security policy compliance, its employees#39;
security awareness and the organization#39;s ability to identify and respond to security incidents.
Penetration tests are sometimes called white hat attacks because in a pen test, the good guys are attempting to break in.
Pen test strategies include: Targeted testing
Targeted testing is performed by the organization#39;s IT team and the penetration testing team working together. It#39;s sometimes referred to as a quot;lights-turned-onquot; approach because everyone can see the test being carried out.
This type of pen test targets a company#39;s externally visible servers or devices including domain name servers (DNS), e-mail servers, Web servers or firewalls. The objective is to find out if an outside attacker can get in and how far they can get in once they#39;ve gained access.
This test mimics an inside attack behind the firewall by an authorized user with standard access privileges. This kind of test is useful for estimating how much damage a disgruntled employee could cause.
A blind test strategy simulates the actions and procedures of a real attacker by severely limiting the information given to the person or team that#39;s performing the test beforehand. Typically, they may only be given the name of the company. Because this type of test can require a considerable amount of time for reconnaissance, it can be expensive.
Double blind testing
Double blind testing takes the blind test and carries it a step further. In this type of pen test, only one or two people within the organization might be aware a test is being conducted.
Double-blind tests can be useful for testing an organization#39;s security monitoring and incident identification as well as its response procedures.
Question No: 602 – (Topic 3)
A security analyst performs the following activities: monitors security logs, installs
surveillance cameras and analyzes trend reports. Which of the following job responsibilities is the analyst performing? (Select TWO).
Detect security incidents
Reduce attack surface of systems
Implement monitoring controls
Hardening network devices
Prevent unauthorized access
Answer: A,C Explanation:
By monitoring security logs, installing security cameras and analyzing trend reports, the security analyst is implementing monitoring controls.
With the monitoring controls in place, by monitoring the security logs, reviewing the footage from the security cameras and analyzing trend reports, the security analyst is able to detect security incidents.
Question No: 603 – (Topic 3)
Ann, a security analyst, is preparing for an upcoming security audit. To ensure that she identifies unapplied security controls and patches without attacking or compromising the system, Ann would use which of the following?
Answer: A Explanation:
A vulnerability scan is the process of scanning the network and/or I.T. infrastructure for threats and vulnerabilities. The threats and vulnerabilities are then evaluated in a risk assessment and the necessary actions taken to resolve and vulnerabilities. A vulnerability scan scans for known weaknesses such as missing patches or security updates.
A vulnerability scan is the automated process of proactively identifying security vulnerabilities of computing systems in a network in order to determine if and where a system can be exploited and/or threatened. While public servers are important for communication and data transfer over the Internet, they open the door to potential security
breaches by threat agents, such as malicious hackers.
Vulnerability scanning employs software that seeks out security flaws based on a database of known flaws, testing systems for the occurrence of these flaws and generating a report of the findings that an individual or an enterprise can use to tighten the network#39;s security.
Question No: 604 – (Topic 3)
Which of the following malware types is MOST likely to execute its payload after Jane, an employee, has left the company?
Answer: B Explanation:
This is an example of a logic bomb. The logic bomb is configured to ‘go off’ or when Jane has left the company.
A logic bomb is a piece of code intentionally inserted into a software system that will set off a malicious function when specified conditions are met. For example, a programmer may hide a piece of code that starts deleting files should they ever be terminated from the company.
Software that is inherently malicious, such as viruses and worms, often contain logic bombs that execute a certain payload at a pre-defined time or when some other condition is met. This technique can be used by a virus or worm to gain momentum and spread before being noticed. Some viruses attack their host systems on specific dates, such as Friday the 13th or April Fool#39;s Day. Trojans that activate on certain dates are often called quot;time bombsquot;.
To be considered a logic bomb, the payload should be unwanted and unknown to the user of the software. As an example, trial programs with code that disables certain functionality after a set time are not normally regarded as logic bombs.
Question No: 605 – (Topic 3)
Jane, a security administrator, has observed repeated attempts to break into a server.
Which of the following is designed to stop an intrusion on a specific server?
Answer: A Explanation:
This question is asking which of the following is designed to stop an intrusion on a specific server. To stop an intrusion on a specific server, you would use a HIPS (Host Intrusion Prevention System). The difference between a HIPS and other intrusion prevention systems is that a HIPS is a software intrusion prevention systems that is installed on a ‘specific server’.
Intrusion prevention systems (IPS), also known as intrusion detection and prevention systems (IDPS), are network security appliances that monitor network and/or system activities for malicious activity. The main functions of intrusion prevention systems are to identify malicious activity, log information about this activity, attempt to block/stop it, and report it.
A HIPS (Host Intrusion Prevention System) is software installed on a host which monitors the host for suspicious activity by analyzing events occurring within that host with the aim of detecting and preventing intrusion.
Question No: 606 – (Topic 3)
A user commuting to work via public transport received an offensive image on their smart phone from another commuter. Which of the following attacks MOST likely took place?
Answer: B Explanation:
The question states that the ‘attack’ took place on public transport and was received on a smartphone. Therefore, it is most likely that the image was sent using Bluetooth.
Bluejacking is the sending of unsolicited messages over Bluetooth to Bluetooth-enabled devices such as mobile phones, PDAs or laptop computers, sending a vCard which typically contains a message in the name field (i.e., for bluedating or bluechat) to another Bluetooth-enabled device via the OBEX protocol.
Bluetooth has a very limited range, usually around 10 metres (32.8 ft) on mobile phones, but laptops can reach up to 100 metres (328 ft) with powerful (Class 1) transmitters.
Bluejacking is usually harmless, but because bluejacked people generally don#39;t know what has happened, they may think that their phone is malfunctioning. Usually, a bluejacker will only send a text message, but with modern phones it#39;s possible to send images or sounds as well. Bluejacking has been used in guerrilla marketing campaigns to promote advergames.
Question No: 607 HOTSPOT – (Topic 3)
Select the appropriate attack from each drop down list to label the corresponding illustrated attack
Instructions: Attacks may only be used once, and will disappear from drop down list if selected.
When you have completed the simulation, please select the Done button to submit.
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Question No: 608 DRAG DROP – (Topic 3)
Determine the types of attacks below by selecting an option from the dropdown list. Determine the types of Attacks from right to specific action.
A: Phishing is the act of sending an email to a user falsely claiming to be an established legitimate enterprise in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft.
Phishing email will direct the user to visit a website where they are asked to update personal information, such as a password, credit card, social security, or bank account numbers, that the legitimate organization already has. The website, however, is bogus and set up only to steal the information the user enters on the page.
B: Whaling is a specific kind of malicious hacking within the more general category of phishing, which involves hunting for data that can be used by the hacker. In general, phishing efforts are focused on collecting personal data about users. In whaling, the targets are high-ranking bankers, executives or others in powerful positions or job titles.
Hackers who engage in whaling often describe these efforts as quot;reeling in a big fish,quot; applying a familiar metaphor to the process of scouring technologies for loopholes and opportunities for data theft. Those who are engaged in whaling may, for example, hack into specific networks where these powerful individuals work or store sensitive data. They may also set up keylogging or other malware on a work station associated with one of these
executives. There are many ways that hackers can pursue whaling, leading C-level or top- level executives in business and government to stay vigilant about the possibility of cyber threats.
C: Vishing is the act of using the telephone in an attempt to scam the user into surrendering private information that will be used for identity theft. The scammer usually pretends to be a legitimate business, and fools the victim into thinking he or she will profit.
D: SPIM is a term sometimes used to refer to spam over IM (Instant Messaging). It’s also called just spam, instant spam, or IM marketing. No matter what the name, it consists of unwanted messages transmitted through some form of instant messaging service, which can include Short Message Service (SMS).
E: Social engineering is a non-technical method of intrusion hackers use that relies heavily on human interaction and often involves tricking people into breaking normal security procedures. It is one of the greatest threats that organizations today encounter.
A social engineer runs what used to be called a quot;con game.quot; For example, a person using social engineering to break into a computer network might try to gain the confidence of an authorized user and get them to reveal information that compromises the network#39;s security. Social engineers often rely on the natural helpfulness of people as well as on their weaknesses. They might, for example, call the authorized employee with some kind of urgent problem that requires immediate network access. Appealing to vanity, appealing to authority, appealing to greed, and old-fashioned eavesdropping are other typical social engineering techniques.
Question No: 609 – (Topic 3)
Purchasing receives an automated phone call from a bank asking to input and verify credit card information. The phone number displayed on the caller ID matches the bank. Which of the following attack types is this?
Answer: C Explanation:
Vishing (voice or VoIP phishing) is an electronic fraud tactic in which individuals are tricked into revealing critical financial or personal information to unauthorized entities. Vishing works like phishing but does not always occur over the Internet and is carried out using voice technology. A vishing attack can be conducted by voice email, VoIP (voice over IP), or landline or cellular telephone.
The potential victim receives a message, often generated by speech synthesis, indicating that suspicious activity has taken place in a credit card account, bank account, mortgage account or other financial service in their name. The victim is told to call a specific telephone number and provide information to quot;verify identityquot; or to quot;ensure that fraud does not occur.quot; If the attack is carried out by telephone, caller ID spoofing can cause the victim#39;s set to indicate a legitimate source, such as a bank or a government agency.
Vishing is difficult for authorities to trace, particularly when conducted using VoIP. Furthermore, like many legitimate customer services, vishing scams are often outsourced to other countries, which may render sovereign law enforcement powerless.
Consumers can protect themselves by suspecting any unsolicited message that suggests they are targets of illegal activity, no matter what the medium or apparent source. Rather than calling a number given in any unsolicited message, a consumer should directly call the institution named, using a number that is known to be valid, to verify all recent activity and to ensure that the account information has not been tampered with.
Question No: 610 – (Topic 3)
During a server audit, a security administrator does not notice abnormal activity. However, a network security analyst notices connections to unauthorized ports from outside the corporate network. Using specialized tools, the network security analyst also notices hidden processes running. Which of the following has MOST likely been installed on the server?
Answer: D Explanation:
A rootkit is a collection of tools (programs) that enable administrator-level access to a computer or computer network. Typically, a cracker installs a rootkit on a computer after first obtaining user-level access, either by exploiting a known vulnerability or cracking a password. Once the rootkit is installed, it allows the attacker to mask intrusion and gain root or privileged access to the computer and, possibly, other machines on the network.
A rootkit may consist of spyware and other programs that: monitor traffic and keystrokes; create a quot;backdoorquot; into the system for the hacker#39;s use; alter log files; attack other machines on the network; and alter existing system tools to escape detection.
The presence of a rootkit on a network was first documented in the early 1990s. At that time, Sun and Linux operating systems were the primary targets for a hacker looking to install a rootkit. Today, rootkits are available for a number of operating systems, including Windows, and are increasingly difficult to detect on any network.
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